Combining the study of educational interventions with functional and structural neuroimaging allows researchers to understand how brain function and even structure changes as children strengthen existing or acquire new skills and knowledge. Furthermore, understanding which brain circuits are changed by an educational intervention can help us to better understand the mechanisms that underpin the change in the student’s behavior. Neuroimaging can provide a more objective assessment of how students’ strategies may be changing. Furthermore, using neuroimaging to study the effects of educational interventions on the brain can also be used to contrast different pedagogical approaches to teaching the same skills and/or concepts. By using neuroimaging (in addition to behavioral measures) to contrast different types of interventions, commonalities as well as differences in their underlying mechanisms that lead to changes in students’ ability and understanding can be better understood.